Education is the process by which a training or learning is provided to one or more people with the purpose that they develop, train and optimize their cognitive, affective, social and moral abilities.
Education is an essential element when it comes to generating a common context and learning the different skills necessary to adapt to the environment and be able to perform different functions, something that has been of concern to humanity since ancient times.
Despite the fact that access to formal education has not been compulsory and accessible to everyone until relatively recently, different models or attempts have been made to assess what is intended to achieve or what objectives have formal learning. One of these models is Bloom’s taxonomy, of which we are going to talk throughout this article.
Bloom’s Taxonomy: what is it?
Bloom’s taxonomy is a classification of different objectives to be achieved through formal education carried out by Benjamin Bloom based on the three aspects that different education experts had reflected in 1940 when trying to establish a consensus regarding the objectives of education: cognition, affectivity.
It is a classification of objectives carried out in a hierarchical manner, organized on the basis of whether the activity requires more or less complex processing. The author set out in his classification of the contributions of behaviorism and cognitive prevailing at the time.
This taxonomy has been from its conception used and valued in the world of education. In itself, although Bloom’s taxonomy starts from the consideration of the three great aspects and these are analyzed and classified, it tends to focus especially on the cognitive side, with this taxonomy being finalized in 1956. With regard to the classification of objectives and the dimensions worked in each one of the aspects, in the taxonomy we can find the following ones.
The cognitive taxonomy
The aspect in which perhaps the greatest emphasis has been placed throughout the history of education, and in which Bloom’s taxonomy also focuses especially, is in the cognitive sphere.
In it, it aims to enhance the student’s competence in the achievement or achievement of certain cognitive abilities or objectives (specifically six) from different intellectual, affective and psychomotor capacities. Although within each of them can be different actions and aspects to work, as a summary we can consider that the main objectives of education according to Bloom’s taxonomy are the following.
Although the concept of knowledge may seem very broad, in this taxonomy is indicated as such the ability to remember what previously acquired more or less approximate. It is considered the most basic of the capacities that the student must acquire and the one that requires the least processing.
Acquiring and keeping recorded what has been learned does not require great processing, but per se it does not serve to adapt to the environment. It is necessary that we understand what we have learned. Thus, a second objective is to be able to transform information as it comes to us in something that we can understand and interpret.
A more complex step is that of the application. At this time the subject should not only grasp and understand what is being said but also be able to use it. It is not the same to know and understand what a multiplication is, to do it in a practical way and when it is needed.
The analysis of information means being able to abstract the knowledge obtained in the previous moments, requiring the ability to fragment the reality of what has been learned in order to distinguish what configures it and allow the application in different areas.
You can come up with hypotheses and contrast them based on the information provided. Continuing with the multiplication of the previous example; it would be to be able to understand that we can make a multiplication in a certain problem and why it is correct. It requires high processing.
Synthesizing involves creating a model in a summarized way, combining the information received to create something different from what has been learned (in fact, in later revisions, synthesis is changed by creation). It is one of the most complex cognitive objectives since it involves not only working with the information learned but also incorporating other elements that help us to obtain its base and apply it to create.
This element supposes mainly the fact of being able to emit judgments based on a criterion or based opinion. It can even suppose the non-acceptance of what is being taught, needing for it a very advanced level of mental elaboration.
Reviewing this educational proposal
Although Bloom’s taxonomy has been a reference in the world of education since its conception, this does not imply that different authors have not made any changes in this regard. Specifically highlights the publisher, who were students of the original author.
In this change it was proposed that instead of using nouns to evaluate each of the key categories or objectives, verbs were used, something that facilitates the understanding that the objective is the act of doing a certain action and not its result in itself. It is emphasized that this is an event that requires an active attitude and makes the student the protagonist of his own learning process.
The sequencing of categories was also modified, considering the fact of evaluating a thought of higher order but below the creation process (in the original model, evaluation was considered as more superior to synthesis/creation).
Likewise, the model has subsequently been expanded to include different aspects related to the use of new information and communication technologies, assimilating to other models.